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The tort of civil fraud consists of four elements:
A false representation made by the defendant;
Some level of knowledge of the falsehood of the representation on the part of the defendant (whether through knowledge or recklessness);
The false representation caused the plaintiff to act; and
The plaintiff's actions resulted in a loss.
Bruno Appliance and Furniture, Inc. v. Hryniak, 2014 SCC 8, at para. 21.
NOTE: Civil fraud is also known as deceit or fraudulent misrepresentation.
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