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REQUIREMENTS

The elements of the tort of passing off are:

  1.  The existence of goodwill;

  2.  Deception of the public due to a misrepresentation; and

  3. Actual or potential damage to the plaintiff.

Ciba-Geigy Canada Ltd. v. Apotex Inc., [1992] 3 S.C.R. 120, at para. 33.

NOTE:  Where the goodwill relates to a trade mark, sections 7(b) and 53.2(1) of the Trademarks Act, RSC 1985, c. T-13, provides a parallel statutory action for an injunction and damages.